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The AED pads. The two key types, there's a cartridge type and the conventional pad type. Now the cartridge types can be divided into two groups as well, the one that includes a battery, and the ones without. The first one we're going to look at is the HeartSine, and this is the HeartSine AED pad cartridge. What it is, it includes the battery pack inside the pads, so when you change the pads, you're also changing the battery. There are no serviceable parts on it. Once you open it up, then the pads are then used, and you have to replace the whole unit. This is good because, after every use of an AED, we would always recommend that you change the batteries with it. The other key type of cartridge one is the Philips HeartStart. And with this, you have a button at the top, and you can pull the cover off, and then just take off the pads themselves. And again, they work in a cartridge idea. Peel them off there. 

The actual cartridge itself can be released from a button at the top, so you can then see the electrical terminals and where it all connects. If you're changing, you literally just re-connect the unit in. Looking closer at the pads themselves, with the adult pads, you'll see they'll have a picture on exactly where it goes. Here, you can see it's just below the collarbone. If I then turn that over, you'll see the other one where it's going, just below the arms, so it's going underneath the left arm.

The pads themselves, all you do to use is a little tab at the top. You can peel that back, and as you can see this is just a sticky gel. And they're all pretty much the same. Now this gel will only last for so long, which is why you'd have expiry dates on pads. You peel that off and when you put it on the skin, make sure you push it exactly where you want it, to get it lined up correctly, and then push it down. Don't keep taking it off and back on again, 'because what you'll do, is you'll start to get a build-up of dead skin on the pad, and also it'll lose its stickiness, so it's not going to stick so well. Therefore, it won't be sufficient when you use it. If you're dealing with a man with a very hairy chest, then you'd normally have an accessory pack with the AED unit, so use the razor to take that hair away, 'because you don't want to be sticking the pad on to the hair, you want to be sticking it on to the actual skin. If you don't have a razor, then you're going to have to stick it on and push it firmly down onto the skin, so hopefully, it should make good contact.

The other type of pads are the ones where the batteries are separate and where you get them coming in bags. For example, these come in a foil packaging. With these pads, the important thing to remember is, look at the manufacturer's instructions. When they're inserted into the unit, do we connect the plugin all the time? Or do you have to do this when you're actually using the unit for real? A lot of units, you'd have to have the pads plugged in the whole time, otherwise, it comes up with alerts to say, "It's not connected correctly." But there are some units on the market, where you would plug the pads in when you start using the unit. When you do put the plug into the unit, just make sure that it fits in right and it's in firmly. And make sure you put it nice and level 'because you wouldn't want to have to use this AED unit for real and have trouble getting that plug in place. This would apply as well if you're changing the pads. Be very careful; don't pull it on the cables. Hold it firmly at the base, rather than just pull it at a distance here. Again, we don't want to because of any damage to that plug as we're putting it in and out, even when we're changing the pads. If you did find that you'd put it in and you caused any damage, then you need to replace those pads. The other thing with old pads is you need to make sure that the packaging has not been damaged.

Have a really close look at the pads. Look to see if there are any cracks. Maybe the pads we've put in here have been in a while, and when you take it out, you can see that the foil wrapping has been damaged. If you see any external damage to the pads, you need to replace them, in the same way as you looking for the expiry dates at the same time. Other pads can be variations of here. We've also got the ZOLL. Now the ZOLL is a little bit different from other AED units. It's got a feature where it has a sensor on the chest. What we have here is a sensor in the middle, and what this does is it's detecting the compressions you're doing. It tells the person whether they're going too fast or too slow. The other units have this feature like the HeartSine 500. With that is electronically testing it from the unit itself, so you don't have to have this sensor on here. And the only disadvantage of the sensor sometimes can be you might feel it a little bit in your hand, but really, it's not important because the most important thing is that you do effective CPR. If by having the sensor it's giving you that feedback, directly as you're doing CPR, on how good it is and whether you need to go faster or slower or deeper.

And finally, we're going to look at pediatric pads. The roles of pediatric pads are, if you got them, you would use them. If you don't have pediatric pads, then use adult pads. The reason for this is, because if you're dealing with a child in cardiac arrest, then it's better to do something than nothing. If you have got adult pads, then you would put those on to the child. When you're placing pediatric pads on, you put them on front and back. This is because it's the most effective way of delivering the shock through the heart. Now the pads themselves... If you don't have any, you have to use the adult pads, you would do that in the same way. Also, if you maybe had a situation where you couldn't put the pads on front and back, due to other trauma, then you can put them on just above the nipple on the right-hand side, and then underneath here. But you've got to make sure that the pads do not touch. The problem with the pads touching will be that the shock goes from one pad to the other, and it doesn't go via the heart. And also, the sensing won't actually work when you do that. Always make sure that there are at least 2.5 centimetres between the pads, ideally more.

Now the pads themselves, again, there's a cartridge type or the standard foil packaging. This is the HeartSine with the cartridge. And on here, you'll see that it tells you where to put the pads. When you open up this cartridge, there's also a diagram there exactly to show you where to put them, so you can't make any mistakes on placing the pads. Exactly the same way with the adult pads, you've got the expiry dates so you can keep track of that and any other information. With the HeartSine one, this one includes the battery, so that works the same as the adult. And with the HeartStart from Philips, that's a similar cartridge. It looks the same, it's just that the colour's different. Typically, pediatric pads are often pink in colour. These pads are very similar to that what the adult ones. When you peel them back, you'll see that they still got the foil on there, but the foil is a little bit smaller than it is on the adult pads. And finally, one thing we haven't spoken about is infant pads when we're dealing with someone under the age of one. The reason for this is they don't have them. We're only dealing here with children age one up then adults. And typically, there, we're looking at under 25 kilos or one to puberty and then over 25 kilos which would be for the adult pads. So, infant pads, we don't have. If there is a case where you've got to try to rescue an infant, you would go through the normal process of activating emergency services.